The study of Shakila Abdul Manan aims to determine language choice, the process of language shift and maintenance and their effects on the diasporic Punjabi-Muslim community’s ethnic, cultural and national identity. It adopts a qualitative study of L1 use (heritage language use) among selected respondents from the Punjabi-Muslim community currently residing in Penang. Utilising an interview protocol comprising questions which are semi-structured, the study will draw data from 30 Punjabi-Muslim respondents from three different generations. The questions aim to find out the following: general background information about the respondents’ language use and choice, educational level, employment, fluency in the language(s) concerned, how these languages were learnt, the domains in which the heritage language is used, language network, benefits of using the heritage language, feelings about the heritage language (whether they feel they have forgotten it), language choice for their children, sense of belonging to their heritage language and other dominant languages spoken in the country, attitude towards the heritage language and its future maintenance, what makes them identify themselves as Malaysians and as Punjabi-Muslims, what they like or dislike about Malaysia. Data are analysed and interpreted using ideas drawn from a poststructuralist and social-constructionist understanding of language, culture and identity.